Technology

Radiopaque 3D printing

Our phantoms are manufactured with radiopaque 3D printing (R3P).

The technology consists of a 2D and a 3D printing step. The 2D printing step uses inkjet printing with radiopaque inks. In the 3D printing step, the printed layers are assembled to a 3D phantom (1,2). Phantom materials are designed to match densities and attenuation coefficients of human tissue.

Patient – CT Scan

Phantom – CT Scan

Specification

Resolution:

x-y resolution: <150 microns

z-resolution: <100 microns

Materials:

Adipose tissue:

Tissue equivalent (energy independent)

Soft tissues:

Calibrated to an energy spectrum (standard: 120 kVp CT imaging)

Tissue equivalent materials (energy independent) available

Bone tissue:

Calibrated to an energy spectrum (standard: 120 kVp CT imaging)

Tissue equivalent materials (energy independent) available for small samples

Tissue equivalent materials:

Max. 2% deviation from human reference tissues within the energy range of 10 keV to 100 MeV.

References

1. Jahnke P, Limberg FR, Gerbl A, et al. Radiopaque Three-dimensional Printing: A Method to Create Realistic CT Phantoms. Radiology. 2017;282(2):569-75

2. Jahnke P, Schwarz S, Ziegert M, Schwarz FB, Hamm B, Scheel M. Paper-based 3D printing of anthropomorphic CT phantoms: Feasibility of two construction techniques. Eur Radiol. 2019;29(3):1384-90.